This thesis examines and compares the theological views of Dr. John Owen (1616-1683), the Puritan pastor and theologian, and John Wesley (1703-1791), the evangelist and founder of Methodism. The area of enquiry is confined to the subjects of Atonement and Justification, matters which occasioned protracted doctrinal debate during the period under review. Since Owen and Wesley represent the Calvinist and Arminian interpretations of the controversy, their viewpoints express what became a permanent religious rift within British evangelical Protestantism. The analysis will also consider the viability of the theological via media represented by Richard Baxter (1615- 1691) and Archbishop Tillotson (1630-1694). The discussion also takes account of the theology of the Protestant Reformers, in an attempt to assess the doctrinal modifications which took place during the 17th and 18th centuries, and the factors, both theological and philosophical, which brought them about. The analysis 'seeks both to assess the various aspects of the debate within the context of historical theology, and to evaluate them according to the criteria of Biblical exegesis. By adopting such a method, an attempt is made to present a coherent alternative to the conflicting judgements of John Owen and John Wesley.