The increasing ethnic diversity in the UK has highlighted the importance of supporting primary school pupils with English as an Additional Language (EAL), some of whom also have special educational needs (SEN). While research has been done in the EAL and SEN fields respectively, there is relatively little research on children with both EAL needs and SEN. Adopting a case study approach, the thesis examines the strategies used to teach and support these children in four mainstream primary schools in North-West England. Possible reasons for the use of these strategies are explored. The preliminary analysis revealed that EAL pupils with Speech, Language and Communication Needs (SLCN) or Learning Difficulties (LD) constituted the two largest groups. Thus, the analysis focused on these two groups. A variety of research methods were used such as lesson observations, staff and pupil interviews. Staff supporting the EAL/SLCN group seemed to use a greater variety of sub-strategies, more language-related strategies and provided differentiated support at the individual and group levels. Staff supporting the EAL/LD group employed more task-related strategies and provided support to the class as a whole. All staff members felt that there are needs specific to a particular group and/or groups of learners. Factors which might have influenced the choice of strategies include: class demographics, school profiles and resources, staff training and experience, pedagogical beliefs and staff’s understanding/knowledge of the child’s EAL needs and SEN. The study proposes a framework incorporating the above results and theoretical perspectives regarding the nature of pedagogic needs and inclusive practice. In particular, the study discusses the notion of pedagogic needs which are specific to more than one group of learners and yet not common to all. Finally, implications and recommendations are made for training and resource allocation within schools.