The properties of methyltrimethoxysilane-treated, waterlogged archeological elm wood were studied by magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The spatially resolved proton density images, spin–spin relaxa- tion profiles, proton NMR spectra, and self-diffusion coefficients of the preserva- tive agents were measured during drying. The resolution of the data allowed for the differentiation between the early and late wood areas of the elm wood and deter- mination of the shrinkage of the sample in the tangential and radial directions, and it showed the different dynamics of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) in the lumen cells of both early and late woods. The NMR spectra indicated that the MTMS, after rapid evaporation of ethanol, is bound to the wood. Identical measurements were also taken for the archeological elm wood treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and for an untreated wood sample. From the results, it can be concluded that MTMS showed significantly higher stability against shrinkage when compared to PEG. Therefore, it may be considered as an alternative preservative for archeologi- cal wood.