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Increasing Demand for Natural Rubber Necessitates a Robust Sustainability Initiative to Mitigate Impacts on Tropical Biodiversity. / Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Dolman, Paul M.; Edwards, David P.

Yn: Conservation Letters, Cyfrol 8, Rhif 4, 01.07.2015, t. 230-241.

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Warren-Thomas, Eleanor ; Dolman, Paul M. ; Edwards, David P. / Increasing Demand for Natural Rubber Necessitates a Robust Sustainability Initiative to Mitigate Impacts on Tropical Biodiversity. Yn: Conservation Letters. 2015 ; Cyfrol 8, Rhif 4. tt. 230-241.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Increasing Demand for Natural Rubber Necessitates a Robust Sustainability Initiative to Mitigate Impacts on Tropical Biodiversity

AU - Warren-Thomas, Eleanor

AU - Dolman, Paul M.

AU - Edwards, David P.

PY - 2015/7/1

Y1 - 2015/7/1

N2 - Strong international demand for natural rubber is driving expansion of industrial‐scale and smallholder monoculture plantations, with >2 million ha established during the last decade. Mainland Southeast Asia and Southwest China represent the epicenter of rapid rubber expansion; here we review impacts on forest ecosystems and biodiversity. We estimate that 4.3–8.5 million ha of additional rubber plantations are required to meet projected demand by 2024, threatening significant areas of Asian forest, including many protected areas. Uncertainties concern the potential for yield intensification of existing cultivation to mitigate demand for new rubber area, versus potential displacement of rubber by more profitable oil palm. Our review of available studies indicates that conversion of forests or swidden agriculture to monoculture rubber negatively impacts bird, bat and invertebrate biodiversity. However, rubber agroforests in some areas of Southeast Asia support a subset of forest biodiversity in landscapes that retain little natural forest. Work is urgently needed to: improve understanding of whether land‐sparing or land‐sharing rubber cultivation will best serve biodiversity conservation, investigate the potential to accommodate biodiversity within existing rubber‐dominated landscapes while maintaining yields, and ensure rigorous biodiversity and social standards via the development of a sustainability initiative.

AB - Strong international demand for natural rubber is driving expansion of industrial‐scale and smallholder monoculture plantations, with >2 million ha established during the last decade. Mainland Southeast Asia and Southwest China represent the epicenter of rapid rubber expansion; here we review impacts on forest ecosystems and biodiversity. We estimate that 4.3–8.5 million ha of additional rubber plantations are required to meet projected demand by 2024, threatening significant areas of Asian forest, including many protected areas. Uncertainties concern the potential for yield intensification of existing cultivation to mitigate demand for new rubber area, versus potential displacement of rubber by more profitable oil palm. Our review of available studies indicates that conversion of forests or swidden agriculture to monoculture rubber negatively impacts bird, bat and invertebrate biodiversity. However, rubber agroforests in some areas of Southeast Asia support a subset of forest biodiversity in landscapes that retain little natural forest. Work is urgently needed to: improve understanding of whether land‐sparing or land‐sharing rubber cultivation will best serve biodiversity conservation, investigate the potential to accommodate biodiversity within existing rubber‐dominated landscapes while maintaining yields, and ensure rigorous biodiversity and social standards via the development of a sustainability initiative.

KW - Agroforestry

KW - carbon emissions

KW - ecosystem services

KW - Hevea brasiliensis

KW - land-sparing versus land-sharing

KW - land-use change

KW - forest loss

KW - monoculture

KW - plantation

U2 - 10.1111/conl.12170

DO - 10.1111/conl.12170

M3 - Review article

VL - 8

SP - 230

EP - 241

JO - Conservation Letters

JF - Conservation Letters

SN - 1755-263X

IS - 4

ER -