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Lets go Surfing now, everybody's learning how; attentional strategies on expert and novice surfing performance under both practice and competition conditions. / Lawrence, Gavin P; Virian, Jana; Oliver, Samuel J; Gottwald, Victoria M.

Yn: European Journal of Sport Science, Cyfrol 20, Rhif 2, 2020, t. 229-239.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Lets go Surfing now, everybody's learning how; attentional strategies on expert and novice surfing performance under both practice and competition conditions

AU - Lawrence, Gavin P

AU - Virian, Jana

AU - Oliver, Samuel J

AU - Gottwald, Victoria M

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - Research suggests an external focus of attention (EFOA) promotes effective performance and learning compared to an internal focus of attention (IFOA), with explanations proposed by the constrained action hypothesis (CAH) and OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Specifically, it is proposed that adopting an EFOA prevents the constraining of normally automatic control processes and subsequent performance decrements (typically observed when individuals adopt an IFOA) by simultaneously reducing self-focus strategies and enhancing goal-action coupling. The present study attempted to fill this research lacuna by examining the CAH and OPTIMAL theory in a complex, ecologically valid, motor task under both low and high-pressured conditions. In two separate experiments, novice (n = 23) and advanced (n = 21) surfers completed a surfing task in an artificial Wavegarden under either EFOA or IFOA instructions. Experimental phases included a pre-test, acquisition and competition transfer. Results revealed that advanced and novice surfing performance benefited from adopting an EFOA in both normal and competitive situations. These findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical implications for the CAH and OPTIMAL theory, in addition to the anxiety literature. Reference to applied implications when instructing and performing within ecologically valid surfing settings are also presented.

AB - Research suggests an external focus of attention (EFOA) promotes effective performance and learning compared to an internal focus of attention (IFOA), with explanations proposed by the constrained action hypothesis (CAH) and OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Specifically, it is proposed that adopting an EFOA prevents the constraining of normally automatic control processes and subsequent performance decrements (typically observed when individuals adopt an IFOA) by simultaneously reducing self-focus strategies and enhancing goal-action coupling. The present study attempted to fill this research lacuna by examining the CAH and OPTIMAL theory in a complex, ecologically valid, motor task under both low and high-pressured conditions. In two separate experiments, novice (n = 23) and advanced (n = 21) surfers completed a surfing task in an artificial Wavegarden under either EFOA or IFOA instructions. Experimental phases included a pre-test, acquisition and competition transfer. Results revealed that advanced and novice surfing performance benefited from adopting an EFOA in both normal and competitive situations. These findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical implications for the CAH and OPTIMAL theory, in addition to the anxiety literature. Reference to applied implications when instructing and performing within ecologically valid surfing settings are also presented.

KW - Coaching

KW - Performance

KW - Stress

KW - Expertise

U2 - 10.1080/17461391.2019.1626489

DO - 10.1080/17461391.2019.1626489

M3 - Article

C2 - 31148515

VL - 20

SP - 229

EP - 239

JO - European Journal of Sport Science

JF - European Journal of Sport Science

SN - 1746-1391

IS - 2

ER -