Significant areas of ecosystems are being lost or degraded as a result of human activities. There is growing concern for the health of urban populations as cities sprawl at an unprecedented rate. Urban green infrastructures provide a notable range of environmental remediation benefits, and pioneering health policy is recognizing nature as a cost-effective tool for planning healthy cities. It is general recognized that ecosystems can provide air/water purification, soil erosion protection, flood damage control, carbon sequestration and recreational facilities (green gym) that contribute to human well-being, economic stability and physical security. However, there is limited information on how specific elements of nature deliver health outcomes. In this study, we developed a framework for identifying pathways through which nature bring environmental remediation benefits, and highlight current evidence, established measurement methods and future research needs.