Three experiments were conducted on Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Ber) in parkland systems in Mali between 2006 and 2009: 1) the effect of Tamarind on yield and nutritional quality of African eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L) in comparison with sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L. ) Moench) was performed in Siramana village; 2) methods of domesticating an improved cultivar of Ber on farms through intercropping with African eggplant and sorghum were performed in Sanankoroba and 3) methods of enhancing the growth of Tamarind and Ber seedlings through mycorrhizal inoculation were performed in the nursery of Sotuba research Centre. All the three sites are situated in South Sudanian zone with annual rainfall ranging from 900 to 1200 mm. The soils in Siramana and Sanankoroba have sandy clay loan and sandy loan texture respectively. For the third experiment, nursery soil was used which consisted of local soil (1/3), sand (1/3) and compost (1/3). Concerning the first experiment, six adult trees of Tamarind were randomly selected in the collaborating farmers' fields. The area around each sample tree was subdivided into three concentric zones: Zone A; Zone B and Zone C. A control plot (Zone D) was installed in an open area. Crop production (eggplant and sorghum) in these zones was assessed over two cropping seasons. Regarding the second experiment, an experimental plantation was established with seedlings of the local variety of Ber half of which were grafted in-situ with an improved cultivar of Ber called SEB. Crop production as well as the performance of Ber was assessedin each experimental plot over two cropping seasons. Concerning the experiment on mycorrhizas, three inocula were used: Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fascia and unselected nursery soil inoculum as a control. The results of the study on the intercropping trial of Tamarind showed that Tamarind may have a positive effect on yield of eggplant but a negative effect on yield of sorghum. Tamarind had, however, no effect on nutritional composition of both crops. The results of farmer's feedback survey showed that growing eggplants under Tamarind has a great potential for adoption by farmers in Mali because majority of respondents mentioned that the tree-crop association tested was a good idea and should be promoted for making more productive use of land under trees, improving crop yields and increasing farmers' incomes. The results of the study on Ber domestication showed that SEB, the improved variety as well as the local variety of Ber had no detrimental effect on either eggplant or sorghum, both in terms of yield and nutritional quality, two years after establishment. In fact a beneficial effect of trees was found on the performance of both crops (yield, dry matter production) which suggest a complementarity of resource use. The high level of fruit production of the improved variety of Ber observed on farms under rain-fed conditions may be a source of additional income and diversification of diet for rural communities in Africa. Therefore, the adoption by farmers of the agroforestry practice of domesticating improved Ber varieties in association with food crops may help considerably in alleviating poverty in the region. The results of the mycorrhizal studies showed that VAM species differed in their ability to enhance plant growth. The growth of Ber was significantly improved by G. aggregatum inoculum while the growth of Tamarind was enhanced with nursery soil inoculum. The results on Tamarind suggest the need for isolating the local soil mycorrhizal fungi in future screening experiments.