Bivalve shellﬁsh aquaculture provides many beneﬁts to society, beyond their traditional market value. This study collates the evidence available on the provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services provided by the bivalve species commonly used in aquaculture. For the ﬁrst time, it synthesises this evidence to provide a global assessment of the potential market and non-market economic value of bivalve aquaculture. Bivalves are ﬁlter feeders, ﬁltering water and particulates, creating substrates which provide habitat to act as nursery grounds for other species. Goods from provisioning services include meat, worth an estimated $23.9 billion as well as, pearls, shell and poultry grit, with oyster shell being the most important, with a global potential worth of $5.2 billion. The most important regulating services are nutrient remediation. Cultivated bivalves remove 49,000 tonnes of nitrogen and 6,000 tonnes of phosphorus, worth a potential $1.20 billion. Currently, there is little evidence on the cultural services per year of bivalve aquaculture, but we argue that these cultural values are broad ranging, although difﬁcult to quantify. Our assessment indicates that the global, non-food bivalve aquaculture services are worth $6.47 billion ($2.95 billion–9.99 billion) per annum. However, this is likely to be an underestimate of the true value of bivalve aquaculture as there are signiﬁcant gaps in evidence of the value for a number of key services. The analysis presented here can be used to indicate the likely scale of payments for ecosystem services provided by bivalve aquaculture, prior to more detailed assessments.