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Background: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has set out guidance for promoting physical activity (PA) in the physical environment to promote health and well-being. The aim of this selective scoping review was to investigate the influence of gross income on accessing local green spaces to engage in PA and the associated health benefits. Methods: A scoping review was conducted of international literature to facilitate the clarification of the research
question. Findings: 15 papers were critically appraised under two themes: (1) environments and well-being and (2) PA and income/socioeconomic status and impact on the frequency, duration and opportunity to engage in PA. Interpretation: Income is related to differential use of green and blue spaces for PA, due mainly to access issues. People who live in lower socioeconomic areas tend to be more sedentary and there are also gender differences related to PA in built environments. Conclusion: There is an effect of income in using green spaces for PA, but the relationship is nonlinear, and there is still a lack of knowledge about what kind of green spaces are best for health benefits. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of accessing green local spaces to engage in physical exercise to improve well-being among the public.


  • valuing nature, public health, physical activity, green spaces, blue spaces, income, socioeconomic status
Original languageEnglish
Article number9313
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2020

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