Adeiladu gwydnwch trwy 'Rhieni Ifanc Ni’: astudiaeth ymchwil

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

Mae’r astudiaeth yma’n rhan o werthusiad ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’, a’i fwriad yn bennaf ydy disgrifio’r prosesau a’r profiadau o ‘adeiladu gwytnwch’ ymysg defnyddwyr y prosiect.
Amcanion yr ymchwil oedd i:
1.Nodi rhaglenni ac ymyriadau eraill a gefnogodd rhieni ifanc.
2.Nodi ffactorau amddiffynnol a gryfhaodd gwytnwch rhieni ifanc.
3.Archwilio ansawdd gwytnwch ymysg sampl o rieni ifanc a ddefnyddiodd ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’.
4.Ceisio deall gwytnwch drwy archwilio i ba raddau roedd prosiect ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’ wedi cynyddu hyder rhieni ifanc a lleihau teimladau o stigma tuag atynt fel rhieni ifanc.
5.Nodi’r ymarfer gorau o brosiect ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’ a deall ei le o ran y lenyddiaeth ryngwladol.
Defnyddiodd y prosiect amrywiaeth o ddulliau i fynd i’r afael â’r amcanion yma.
Ymgymerwyd ag astudiaeth scopio o ran y lenyddiaeth. Darganfuwyd bu twf enfawr mewn ymchwil sy’n honni archwilio gwytnwch oddifewn i feysydd cysylltiedig â pholisi dros y ddeng mlynedd diwethaf. Nid yw’r mwyafrif ohonynt yn diffinio’r cysyniad, ond yn hytrach yn hyrwyddo amrywiol ddulliau o ymdopi ymreolus ymysg grwpiau bregus.
Ystyrir amred o ddifiniadau. Diffiniodd Windle (2011) wytnwch fel “the process of effectively negotiating, adapting to, or managing significant sources of stress or trauma”. Mabwysiedir ei diffiniad hi yma fel sail i’r ymchwil hwn. Disgrifir ffactorau a ddeellir fel rhai sy’n hyrwyddo addasiad (ffactorau amddiffynnol).
Ymgymerwyd ag adolygiad trefnus o’r lenyddiaeth sy’n adrodd ar ymyriadau er hyrwyddo gwytnwch ymysg rhieni ifanc.

Er adlewydrchu’r diffinaid a ddefnyddir gan y priosiect, rydym yn cymryd fod ‘rhieni ifanc’ yn cyferio at rieni o dan 25.
Yma trefnir ffactorau amddiffynnol yn ôl asedau’r unigolyn (priodoleddau’r unigolyn) neu adnoddau amgylcheddol. Gall ymyriadau gryfhau y ddau. Ystyriwyd ymyriadau tebyg i ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’ ar wahân: deallir y rhain fel rhai sy’n cynnwys elfen o arweiniad gan gyfoed a dynesiad holistaidd wedi ei deilwra, gan fod rhain yn cynnig cymhariaeth unionyrchol Ymysg y grwp yma, y ffactorau amddiffynnol roedd ymyriadau yn ceisio eu hyrwyddo oedd: adeiladu rhwydweithiau cynnal, galluogi rhannu profiad, cynyddu sgiliau, darparu dynesiad wedi ei ganoli ar y cleient, cefnogi cynnwys mewn addysg a llwyddiant, cefnogaeth i arweinwyr cymunedol a staff, sicrhau fod rhieni yn aros efo’r prosiect yn ddigon hir i elwa ohono ac ymyryd yn gynnar- efallai ar ddechrau beichiogrwydd- er mwyn rhoi cefngogaeth.
Byddai astudiaeth drwy gyfweliad yn amcanu at archwilio profiadau cyfranogwyr o adeiladu gwytnwch drwy’r rhaglen ac yng nghyd-destun fwy eang eu bywydau. Cynhaliwyd nifer bychan o gyfweliadau dwfn gyda rhieni (N = 10) ar draws 3 lleoliad. Roedd cyfranogwyr naill ai wedi profi cefnogaeth y prosiect gynt neu yn parhau i’w dderbyn. Roeddent oll yn famau. Cynhaliwyd dadansoddiad fframwaith er sicrhau fod y dadansoddiad wedi ei ffycysu ar yr amcanion ymchwil gwreiddiol. Nodwyd 4 thema allweddol. Cyfeiriai y rhain at; Rhiantu, Agweddau at weithio ac astudio, Gwytnwch a Swyddogaeth y Prosiect.
Deallwyd plentyndod hapus fel bod yn rhan o’r gymdogaeth, bod yn rhydd i chwarae yn yr awyr iach, bod â chwmni brawd neu chwaer ac o ran gwyliau gyda rhieni.
Tra fod darganfod eu bod yn feichiog yn sioc i’r mwyafrif, roeddent oll yn diffinio bod yn rhiant drwy gynnig pegynnau eithaf, sialens eithriadol a boddhad eithriadol fel ei gilydd. Roedd ymwybod â thlodi, diweithdra a chyfyngu ar gyfleoedd yn mynd law yn llaw â bod yn rhiant yn gynnar, ynghyd â phrofiad eang o unigrwydd cymdeithasol. Yn aml roedd gan gyfranogwyr safonnau uchel o ran osgoi gwrthdaro gyda’u plant, gan fod yn hunan-feirniadol pan yn canfod eu bod wedi methu cyrraedd y safonnau hynny. Gwelwyd fod tripiau, profiadau newydd a’r hyfforddiant penodol a ddarperid gan y prosiect yn chwarae rhan allweddol mewn adeiladu galluoedd rhieni i osgoi gwrthdaro gyda’u plant ac i fod yn fwy hyderus fel rhieni.
Rhoddai’r cyfranogwyr bris mawr ar waith gan gyflwyno gwaith neu astudio fel ei fod yn sumbolaidd werthfawr. Cynrychiolwyd gwaith fel cyfrifoldeb unigol a mamol. Tra eu bod yn aml yn werthfawrogol o gymorth ymarfeol i gael hyd i waith, roeddent hefyd yn dra ymwybodol o dlodi mewn gwaith. I rhai a gyfwelwyd, golygai bod mewn gwaith lai o arian i fagu eu plant na fyddai ar gael pe na byddent yn gweithio. Roedd penderfynu parhau i weithio yn dibynnu ar gefnogaeth gartref neu ar drefniadau hyblyg gyda’u cyflogwyr. Er y gwerth moesol a roddwyd ar waith neu astudio, i rhai o’r cyfranogwyr roedd y galwadau ar adnoddau neu amser yn arwain at wrthdaro gyda’u amgyffred o’u swyddogaeth mamol fel darparwyr ac addysgwyr cyntaf eu plant.
O ran gwytnwch, deallwyd gallu cyfranogwyr i ymateb yn bositif i sialensau fel bod â mwy o hyder, cefnogaeth a gwybodaeth berthnasol. Roedd gwytnwch yn yr ystyr yna yn rhywbeth a oedd yn allu a oedd yn parhau. Roedd yn cynnwys gallu galw ar rwydwaith o gefnogwyr a gwybod sut i gael at gwybodaeth a’i ddefnyddio.
Gwelwyd prosiect ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’ fel ei fod yn chwarae rhan offerynnol a chanolog yn y broses o adeiladu hyder cyfranogwyr a chreu rhwydweithiau cefnogi. Pan roedd y rhwydweithau yma yn cynnwys rhieni eraill ymddengys eu bod yn parhau wedi i’r rhieni adael y prosiect. Cynrychiolwyd perthnasau gyda gweithwyr cefnogol a mentoriaid cyfoed mewn termau teimladau ac ymddengys eu bod yn agos. Fodd bynnag yn yr achosion yma torrwyd y cysylltiad pan ymadawodd cyfranogwyr â’r prosiect.
Er hynny roedd cyfranogwyr, gan gynnwys y rhai a oedd wedi ymadael, yn teimlo fod ganddynt rwydweithiau cefnogi a’u bod yn fwy galluog i gael mynediad atynt a‘u defnyddio. Hefyd disgrifiai rhai ddysgu strategaethau i ddelio gyda phroblemau a deall eu hymateb iddynt.

Gwnawn dri argymhelliad o ran polisi ac ymarfer.

•Mae hyrwyddo perthnasau rhwng mamau ifanc yn hanfodl I gefnogi symyd yn llwyddiannus i fod yn fam. Awgryma ein data fod elfen cefnogaeth gan gyfoed y rhaglen hwn yn arbennig o bwysig er gorchfygu stigma a galluogi mamu i rannu eu straeon a’u priofiadau. Cefnogir y canfyddiad yma gan ymchwil diweddar. Dylai polisi ac ymarfer gydnabod gwerth eithriadol trafod ymysg cyfoed ac arweiniad gan gyfoed i famau ifanc.

•Mae darparu cefnogaeth sy’n ganolig ar y cleient i rieni ifanc yn hanfodol o ystyried yr amred o’u hanghenion a’u gobeithion a chymhlethdod eu sustemnau cefnogaeth.
•Mae profiadau newydd a thripiau yn darparu gofod creadigol i rieni ifanc i fagu’r berthynas efo’u plant a chael ffrindiau newydd. Maent yn ffordd rhad o hyrwyddo llesiant a gwrthweithio effeithiau allgau cymdeithasol

Dylai ymchwil pellach archwilio effeithiau tymor hir ymyriadau i adeiladu gwytnwch ymysg mamau ifanc. Awgryma’r ymchwil a adolygir yma fod partneriaid, cyn barneriaid, teulu - yn arbenig mamau – yn chwarae rhan amlwg o ran cefogi symyd mamau ifanc i’r rol. Mae angen archwilio yn bellach sut mae teuluoedd ac eraill arwyddocaol yn cyfrannu tuag at rwydweithiau cefnogi ar gyfer mamau ifanc.


Executive Summary

This research study was undertaken as part of the Rhieni Ifanc Ni evaluation and was intended to describe processes and experiences of ‘building resilience’ among project users.
The objectives of the research study were to:
1.Identify other programmes and interventions that had supported young parents.
2.Identify protective factors that strengthened young parents’ resilience.
3.Explore the qualitative nature of resilience among a sample of young parents who had used ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’.
4.Seek to understand resilience through exploring to what extent the ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’ project had increased young parents’ confidence and reduced feelings of stigma towards them as young parents.
5.Identify best practice from the ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’ project and relate it to the international literature.
The project used mixed methods to address these objectives.
A scoping study of the literature on resilience was undertaken. It found that research purporting to explore resilience within policy-related fields has exploded in the past 10 years. Most do not define the concept but promote various kinds of autonomous coping among vulnerable groups. A range of definitions is considered. Windle (2011) defined resilience as “the process of effectively negotiating, adapting to, or managing significant sources of stress or trauma”. Her definition is adopted here as the basis of this research. Factors that are understood to promote adaptation (protective factors) are described.
A systematic review of literature reporting on interventions to promote resilience among young parents was undertaken. Reflecting the definition used by the project, we take ‘young parents’ to refer to parents under 25 years old. Protective factors are grouped by individual assets (characteristics of the individual) or environmental resources. Both may be strengthened by interventions. Interventions similar to ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’, those involving a peer-led element and a tailored and holistic approach were considered separately. Among this group, protective factors that interventions sought to nurture were: building support networks, facilitating sharing experience, increasing skills, providing a client-centred approach, supporting educational inclusion and success, support from community leaders and staff, ensuring parents stayed on the project long enough to benefit and intervening early – possibly during early pregnancy – to provide support.
An interview study sought to examine participants’ experiences of building resilience through the programme and in the wider context of their lives. A small number of in-depth interviews were undertaken with parents (N = 10) in 3 locations in Gwynedd. Participants had been supported by the project or continued to be supported by it. All were mothers. A framework analysis was undertaken in order to ensure the analysis was focused around the initial research aims. Four key themes were identified: Parenting, Attitudes to work and study, Resilience and the Role of the Project.
A happy childhood was understood in terms of being embedded in the locality, being free to play outside, having the company of siblings and in terms of holidays with parents.
Whilst finding they were pregnant had been a shock to most, all defined parenthood as being both exceptionally challenging and exceptionally rewarding. An awareness of poverty, unemployment and limited opportunities accompanied early parenthood as did widespread experiences of social isolation. Participants often had high standards in relation to avoiding conflict with their children and were self-critical where they felt they had failed to reach those standards. Outings, new experiences and specific training provided by the project were perceived to have played a crucial role in building parents’ abilities to avoid conflict with their children and to be more confident as parents.
Participants placed a high value on work and represented work or study as being symbolically valuable. Work was presented as an individual and maternal responsibility. While participants were often appreciative of practical help in obtaining work, they were also very aware of in-work poverty. For some interviewed, working meant they had less money to provide for their children than they would if they did not work and drew benefits. The decision to continue working depended on support at home or flexible arrangements with employers. Despite the moral value placed on work or study, for some the time and resource implications led to a conflict with their perceptions of their maternal role as providers and first educators of their children.
In terms of resilience, participants’ ability to positively respond to challenges was understood in terms of having increased confidence, support and relevant knowledge. Resilience, was thus understood as an ongoing capacity. It comprised being able to call on networks of supporters and knowing how to access and use information.
The ‘Rhieni Ifanc Ni’ project was seen as having played an instrumental role in building participants’ confidence and creating support networks. Where these networks involved other parents, they appear to be sustained after participants had left the project. Relationships with support workers and peer mentors were represented in affective terms and appear to have been close. In these cases however, the bond was broken as participants left the project. Nonetheless, participants including those who had left, felt that they had support networks and felt more able to access and use them. Some also described having leart strategies to deal with problems and to understand their reactions to them.
We make 3 recommendations for policy and practice:
•Promoting relationships between young mothers is crucial in supporting a successful transition to motherhood. Our data suggests that the peer-led component of this programme was particularly important in overcoming stigma and enabling mothers to share their stories and experiences. This finding is supported by recent recent research. Policy and practice needs to recognise the exceptional value of peer discussion and peer leadership for young mothers.
•Providing client-centred support for young parents is essential given the range of their needs and aspirations and the complexity of support systems.
•New experiences and outings provide a creative space for young parents to bond with their children and form new friendships. They are an inexpensive way of promoting wellbeing and combatting the effects of social exclusion.
Further research needs to explore the long term effects of interventions to build resilience among young mothers. Research reviewed here suggests that partners, former-partners and family – particularly mothers - play a prominent role in supporting young mothers’ transition. How families and significant others contribute to support networks needs to be explored further.
Original languageWelsh
PublisherPrifysgol Bangor University
Commissioning bodySefydliad y Loteri
Number of pages92
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jan 2017
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