A still neglected consequence of climate change is increasing salinity levels in coastal areas. This is due to a combination of factors including sea-level rise and tropical cyclones transporting saltwater upstream. The salination of drinking water is a problem that could affect millions of people living in coastal areas globally. Excess dietary intake of salt is strongly associated with high blood pressure and gastric cancer. Saltwater intrusion can also have a detrimental effect on crops and agriculture. Measurements of salinity in coastal areas are urgently needed to estimate the extent of the problem and the correlation of saline waters with health outcomes. In situ measurements of salinity cannot capture the complicated spatial and temporal changes that take place in surface water bodies. In this article, we will discuss an effective alternative approach to mapping the salinity distribution of surface water using satellites.