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Objectives: Appropriate tools to measure psychological skills in wheelchair athletes seldom exist within the sport psychology literature. Given the benefits of imagery on performance, and the lack of an appropriate wheelchair specific measure, the aim of this multi-study research programme was to develop a new psychometric tool to measure the vividness of movement imagery in wheelchair athletes. We used the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire–2 (VMIQ-2; Roberts, Callow, Hardy, Markland & Bringer, 2008) as a conceptual framework for item creation and subsequent development of a new tool known as the Wheelchair Imagery Ability Questionnaire (WIAQ). Method: Study 1 focused on item creation for the WIAQ for the scale with a purposeful sample of wheelchair athletes using focus groups. Study 2 tested the factor structure of the WIAQ using a Bayesian Structural Equation Modelling (BSEM) approach. Study 3 provided concurrent validity of the WIAQ. Results: Study 1 resulted in the development of the initial 24 item WIAQ. Study 2 refined the scale through the useofBSEMtoa15itemmeasure.Study3providedsupportfortheWIAQevidencefortheconcurrentvalidityof the measure. Conclusion: The WIAQ is the first known measure specifically created to measure imagery ability in wheelchair athletes andhas scope to be used ina broader rehabilitation context for individuals and practitioners makinguse of imagery as a tool to support various physical recovery strategies.


  • Imagery, Vividness, Disability sport, Scale development, Applied sport psychology, Rehabilitation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-204
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Early online date26 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

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