1.The Special Feature led by Sutherland et al. (2018) sought to highlight the importance of ‘qualitative methods’ for conservation. The intention is welcome, and the collection makes many important contributions. Yet, the articles presented a limited perspective on the field, with a focus on objectivist and instrumental methods, omitting discussion of some broader philosophical and methodological considerations crucial to social science research. Consequently, the Special Feature risks narrowing the scope of social science research and, potentially, reducing its quality and usefulness. In this article, we seek to build on the strengths of the articles of the Special Feature by drawing in a discussion on social science research philosophy, methodology and methods.
2.We start with a brief discussion on the value of thinking about data as being qualitative (i.e. text, image or numeric) or quantitative (i.e. numeric), not methods or research. Thinking about methods as qualitative can obscure many important aspects of research design by implying that ‘qualitative methods’ somehow embody a particular set of assumptions or principles. Researchers can bring similar, or very different, sets of assumptions to their research design, irrespective of whether they collect qualitative or quantitative data.
3.We clarify broad concepts, including philosophy, methodology and methods, explaining their role in social science research design. Doing so provides us with an opportunity to examine some of the terms used across the articles of the Special Feature (e.g. bias), revealing that they are used in ways that could be interpreted as being inconsistent with their use in a number of applications of social science.
4.We provide worked examples of how social science research can be designed to collect qualitative data that not only understands decision-making processes, but also the unique social-ecological contexts in which it takes place. These examples demonstrate the importance of coherence between philosophy, methodology and methods in research design, and the importance of reflexivity throughout the research process.
5.We conclude with encouragement for conservation scientists to explore a wider range of qualitative research approaches, providing guidance for the selection and application of social science methods for ecology and conservation.