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  • Robert Gray
    Arizona State University
  • Anders Orn
    Arizona State University
  • Tim Woodman
Are pressure-induced performance errors in experts associated with novice-like skill execution (as predicted by reinvestment/conscious processing theories) or expert execution towards a result that the performer typically intends to avoid (as predicted by ironic processes theory)? The present study directly compared these predictions using a baseball pitching task with two groups of experienced pitchers. One group was shown only their target while the other was shown the target and an ironic (avoid) zone. Both groups demonstrated significantly fewer target hits under pressure. For the target-only group, this was accompanied by significant changes in expertise-related kinematics variables. In the ironic group, the number of pitches thrown in the ironic zone was significantly higher under pressure and there were no significant changes in kinematics. These results suggest that information about an opponent can influence the mechanisms underlying pressure-induced performance errors.


  • ironic error, performance, reinvestment, baseball
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-12
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2017

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