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  • NDT_Thryoid

    Accepted author manuscript, 551 KB, PDF document


  • Adrian Heald
    University of Manchester
  • Lakdasa Premawardhana
    Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff
  • Peter Taylor
    Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff
  • Onyebuchi Okosieme
    Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff
  • Tasneem Bangi
    Salford Royal Hospital
  • Holly Devine
    Salford Royal Hospital
  • Mark Livingston
    Walsall Manor Hospital
  • Ahmed Javed
    Salford Royal Hospital
  • Gabriela Y.C. Moreno
  • Torquil Watt
    Copenhagen University Hospital
  • Mike Stedman
    Research Consortium, Andover
  • Dyfrig Hughes
Introduction: Some levothyroxine unresponsive individuals with hypothyroidism are prescribed a natural desiccated thyroid (NDT) preparation such as Armour Thyroid® or ERFA Thyroid® . These contain a mixture of levothyroxine and liothyronine in a fixed ratio. We evaluated the response to NDT in individuals at a single endocrine centre in terms of how the change from levothyroxine to NDT impacted on their lives in relation to quality of life (QOL) and thyroid symptoms. Methods: The ThyPRO39 (thyroid symptomatology) and EQ-5D-5L-related QoL/EQ5D5L (generic QOL) questionnaires were administered to 31 consecutive patients who had been initiated on NDT, before initiating treatment/6 months later. Results: There were 28 women and 3 men. The dose range of NDT was 60-180 mg daily. Age range was 26-77 years with length of time since diagnosis with hypothyroidism ranging from 2 to 40 years. One person discontinued the NDT because of lack of response; two because of cardiac symptoms. EQ-5D-5L utility increased from a mean (SD) of 0.214 (0.338) at baseline, to 0.606 (0.248) after 6 months; corresponding to a difference of 0.392 (95% CI 0.241-0.542), t = 6.82, P < .001. EQ-VAS scores increased from 33.4 (17.2) to 71.1 (17.5), a difference of 37.7 (95% CI 25.2-50.2), t = -4.9, P < .001. ThyPRO scores showed consistent fall across all domains with the composite QoL-impact Score improving from 68.3 (95% CI 60.9-75.7) to 25.2 (95% CI 18.7-31.7), a difference of 43.1 (95% CI 33-53.2) (t = 5.6, P < .001). Conclusion: Significant symptomatic benefit and improvement in QOL was experienced by people with a history of levothyroxine unresponsive hypothyroidism treated with NDT, suggesting the need for further evaluation of NDT in this context.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14967
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Practice
Issue number12
Early online date9 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 28 Dec 2021
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