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Livestock grazing alters multiple ecosystem properties and services in salt marshes : a meta-analysis. / Davidson, Kate E.; Fowler, Mike S.; Skov, Martin; Doerr, Stefan H.; Beaumont, Nicola; Griffin, John N.

In: Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 54, No. 5, 10.2017, p. 1395-1405.

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HarvardHarvard

Davidson, KE, Fowler, MS, Skov, M, Doerr, SH, Beaumont, N & Griffin, JN 2017, 'Livestock grazing alters multiple ecosystem properties and services in salt marshes: a meta-analysis', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1395-1405. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12892

APA

Davidson, K. E., Fowler, M. S., Skov, M., Doerr, S. H., Beaumont, N., & Griffin, J. N. (2017). Livestock grazing alters multiple ecosystem properties and services in salt marshes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 54(5), 1395-1405. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12892

CBE

Davidson KE, Fowler MS, Skov M, Doerr SH, Beaumont N, Griffin JN. 2017. Livestock grazing alters multiple ecosystem properties and services in salt marshes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology. 54(5):1395-1405. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12892

MLA

VancouverVancouver

Davidson KE, Fowler MS, Skov M, Doerr SH, Beaumont N, Griffin JN. Livestock grazing alters multiple ecosystem properties and services in salt marshes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2017 Oct;54(5):1395-1405. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12892

Author

Davidson, Kate E. ; Fowler, Mike S. ; Skov, Martin ; Doerr, Stefan H. ; Beaumont, Nicola ; Griffin, John N. / Livestock grazing alters multiple ecosystem properties and services in salt marshes : a meta-analysis. In: Journal of Applied Ecology. 2017 ; Vol. 54, No. 5. pp. 1395-1405.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Livestock grazing alters multiple ecosystem properties and services in salt marshes

T2 - a meta-analysis

AU - Davidson, Kate E.

AU - Fowler, Mike S.

AU - Skov, Martin

AU - Doerr, Stefan H.

AU - Beaumont, Nicola

AU - Griffin, John N.

N1 - This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Davidson, K. E., Fowler, M. S., Skov, M. W., Doerr, S. H., Beaumont, N. and Griffin, J. N. (2017), Livestock grazing alters multiple ecosystem properties and services in salt marshes: a meta-analysis. J Appl Ecol. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12892, which has been published in final form at [http://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12892/abstract]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

PY - 2017/10

Y1 - 2017/10

N2 - 1. The far-reaching impacts of livestock grazing in terrestrial grasslands are widely appreciated, but how livestock affect the structure and functions of sensitive coastal ecosystems has hitherto lacked synthesis. Grazing-induced changes in salt marshes have the potential to alter the provision of valuable ecosystem services, such as coastal protection, blue carbon and biodiversity conservation.2. To investigate how livestock alter soil, vegetation and faunal properties in salt marshes, we conducted a global meta-analysis of ungulate grazer impacts on commonly measured ecosystem properties (498 individual responses from 89 studies). We also tested stocking density, grazing duration, grazer identity, and continent and vegetation type as potential modifiers of the grazing effect. The majority of studies were conducted in Europe (75) or the Americas (12), and investigated cattle (43) or sheep (22) grazing.3. All measures of aboveground plant material (height, cover, aboveground biomass, litter) were decreased by grazing, potentially impairing coastal protection through diminished wave attenuation.4. Soil carbon was reduced by grazing in American, but not European marshes, indicating a trade-off with climate regulation that varies geographically. Additionally, grazing increased soil bulk density, salinity and daytime temperature, and reduced redox potential.5. Biodiversity responses depended on focal group, with positive effects of grazing on vegetation species richness, but negative effects on invertebrate richness. Grazing reduced the abundance of herbivorous invertebrates, which may affect fish and crustaceans that feed in the marsh. Overall vertebrate abundance was not affected, but there was provisional evidence for increases over a longer duration of grazing, possibly increasing birdwatching and wildfowling opportunities.6. Synthesis and applications. Our results reveal that the use 55 of salt marshes for livestock production affects multiple ecosystem properties, creating trade-offs and synergies with other ecosystem services. Grazing leads to reductions in blue carbon in the Americas but not in Europe. Grazing may compromise coastal protection and the provision of a nursery habitat for fish while creating provisioning and cultural benefits through increased wildfowl abundance. Meanwhile, increases in plant richness are offset by reductions in invertebrate richness. These findings can inform saltmarsh grazing management, based on local context and desired ecosystem services.

AB - 1. The far-reaching impacts of livestock grazing in terrestrial grasslands are widely appreciated, but how livestock affect the structure and functions of sensitive coastal ecosystems has hitherto lacked synthesis. Grazing-induced changes in salt marshes have the potential to alter the provision of valuable ecosystem services, such as coastal protection, blue carbon and biodiversity conservation.2. To investigate how livestock alter soil, vegetation and faunal properties in salt marshes, we conducted a global meta-analysis of ungulate grazer impacts on commonly measured ecosystem properties (498 individual responses from 89 studies). We also tested stocking density, grazing duration, grazer identity, and continent and vegetation type as potential modifiers of the grazing effect. The majority of studies were conducted in Europe (75) or the Americas (12), and investigated cattle (43) or sheep (22) grazing.3. All measures of aboveground plant material (height, cover, aboveground biomass, litter) were decreased by grazing, potentially impairing coastal protection through diminished wave attenuation.4. Soil carbon was reduced by grazing in American, but not European marshes, indicating a trade-off with climate regulation that varies geographically. Additionally, grazing increased soil bulk density, salinity and daytime temperature, and reduced redox potential.5. Biodiversity responses depended on focal group, with positive effects of grazing on vegetation species richness, but negative effects on invertebrate richness. Grazing reduced the abundance of herbivorous invertebrates, which may affect fish and crustaceans that feed in the marsh. Overall vertebrate abundance was not affected, but there was provisional evidence for increases over a longer duration of grazing, possibly increasing birdwatching and wildfowling opportunities.6. Synthesis and applications. Our results reveal that the use 55 of salt marshes for livestock production affects multiple ecosystem properties, creating trade-offs and synergies with other ecosystem services. Grazing leads to reductions in blue carbon in the Americas but not in Europe. Grazing may compromise coastal protection and the provision of a nursery habitat for fish while creating provisioning and cultural benefits through increased wildfowl abundance. Meanwhile, increases in plant richness are offset by reductions in invertebrate richness. These findings can inform saltmarsh grazing management, based on local context and desired ecosystem services.

KW - Biodiversity

KW - Blue carbon

KW - Cattle

KW - Coastal protection

KW - Ecosystem service trade-offs

KW - Grasslands

KW - Horses

KW - Sheep

KW - Soil

KW - Vegetation

UR - https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/action/downloadSupplement?doi=10.1111%2F1365-2664.12892&file=jpe12892-sup-0001-FigS1.docx

U2 - 10.1111/1365-2664.12892

DO - 10.1111/1365-2664.12892

M3 - Article

VL - 54

SP - 1395

EP - 1405

JO - Journal of Applied Ecology

JF - Journal of Applied Ecology

SN - 1365-2664

IS - 5

ER -