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Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia. / Hawkes, L.A.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Meir, J.U.; Milsom, W.K.; Scott, G.R.; Bishop, C.M.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 9, No. 4, 07.04.2014, p. e94015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

HarvardHarvard

Hawkes, LA, Butler, PJ, Frappell, PB, Meir, JU, Milsom, WK, Scott, GR & Bishop, CM 2014, 'Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia', PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. e94015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094015

APA

Hawkes, L. A., Butler, P. J., Frappell, P. B., Meir, J. U., Milsom, W. K., Scott, G. R., & Bishop, C. M. (2014). Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e94015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094015

CBE

Hawkes LA, Butler PJ, Frappell PB, Meir JU, Milsom WK, Scott GR, Bishop CM. 2014. Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia. PLoS ONE. 9(4):e94015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094015

MLA

VancouverVancouver

Hawkes LA, Butler PJ, Frappell PB, Meir JU, Milsom WK, Scott GR et al. Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia. PLoS ONE. 2014 Apr 7;9(4):e94015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094015

Author

Hawkes, L.A. ; Butler, P.J. ; Frappell, P.B. ; Meir, J.U. ; Milsom, W.K. ; Scott, G.R. ; Bishop, C.M. / Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia. In: PLoS ONE. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 4. pp. e94015.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Maximum Running Speed of Captive Bar-Headed Geese Is Unaffected by Severe Hypoxia

AU - Hawkes, L.A.

AU - Butler, P.J.

AU - Frappell, P.B.

AU - Meir, J.U.

AU - Milsom, W.K.

AU - Scott, G.R.

AU - Bishop, C.M.

PY - 2014/4/7

Y1 - 2014/4/7

N2 - While bar-headed geese are renowned for migration at high altitude over the Himalayas, previous work on captive birds suggested that these geese are unable to maintain rates of oxygen consumption while running in severely hypoxic conditions. To investigate this paradox, we re-examined the running performance and heart rates of bar-headed geese and barnacle geese (a low altitude species) during exercise in hypoxia. Bar-headed geese (n = 7) were able to run at maximum speeds (determined in normoxia) for 15 minutes in severe hypoxia (7% O2; simulating the hypoxia at 8500 m) with mean heart rates of 466±8 beats min−1. Barnacle geese (n = 10), on the other hand, were unable to complete similar trials in severe hypoxia and their mean heart rate (316 beats.min−1) was significantly lower than bar-headed geese. In bar-headed geese, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in both arterial and mixed venous blood were significantly lower during hypoxia than normoxia, both at rest and while running. However, measurements of blood lactate in bar-headed geese suggested that anaerobic metabolism was not a major energy source during running in hypoxia. We combined these data with values taken from the literature to estimate (i) oxygen supply, using the Fick equation and (ii) oxygen demand using aerodynamic theory for bar-headed geese flying aerobically, and under their own power, at altitude. This analysis predicts that the maximum altitude at which geese can transport enough oxygen to fly without environmental assistance ranges from 6,800 m to 8,900 m altitude, depending on the parameters used in the model but that such flights should be rare.

AB - While bar-headed geese are renowned for migration at high altitude over the Himalayas, previous work on captive birds suggested that these geese are unable to maintain rates of oxygen consumption while running in severely hypoxic conditions. To investigate this paradox, we re-examined the running performance and heart rates of bar-headed geese and barnacle geese (a low altitude species) during exercise in hypoxia. Bar-headed geese (n = 7) were able to run at maximum speeds (determined in normoxia) for 15 minutes in severe hypoxia (7% O2; simulating the hypoxia at 8500 m) with mean heart rates of 466±8 beats min−1. Barnacle geese (n = 10), on the other hand, were unable to complete similar trials in severe hypoxia and their mean heart rate (316 beats.min−1) was significantly lower than bar-headed geese. In bar-headed geese, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in both arterial and mixed venous blood were significantly lower during hypoxia than normoxia, both at rest and while running. However, measurements of blood lactate in bar-headed geese suggested that anaerobic metabolism was not a major energy source during running in hypoxia. We combined these data with values taken from the literature to estimate (i) oxygen supply, using the Fick equation and (ii) oxygen demand using aerodynamic theory for bar-headed geese flying aerobically, and under their own power, at altitude. This analysis predicts that the maximum altitude at which geese can transport enough oxygen to fly without environmental assistance ranges from 6,800 m to 8,900 m altitude, depending on the parameters used in the model but that such flights should be rare.

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0094015

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0094015

M3 - Article

VL - 9

SP - e94015

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 4

ER -