This paper examines the factors determining the citation success of authors who have published via the Internet on the economic and business history of Spain. It departs from the dominant cross-sectional approach to the quantitative assessment of citation success by using a 15-year time series analysis of peer-reviewed Spanish and Latin American outlets. Moreover, it considers working papers published online, and assesses the role of Spanish as a medium to communicate with an international audience. Our results suggest a high concentration of publications and citations for a small number of authors (including non-residents) and the importance of local journals in citation success. Besides offering suggestions on how to improve scientific impact, our citation analysis also sheds light on the state of the field of economic and business history in Spanish economic circles and attests the role of Spain as an intermediate country in the production and diffusion of scientific knowledge.