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Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al., 2001) triggered by multiple Plio–Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East. / Stümpel, Nikolaus; Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Avci, Aziz; Wüster, Wolfgang; Joger, Ulrich.

In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 101, 08.2016, p. 336-351.

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Stümpel, Nikolaus ; Rajabizadeh, Mehdi ; Avci, Aziz ; Wüster, Wolfgang ; Joger, Ulrich. / Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al., 2001) triggered by multiple Plio–Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East. In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2016 ; Vol. 101. pp. 336-351.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al., 2001) triggered by multiple Plio–Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East

AU - Stümpel, Nikolaus

AU - Rajabizadeh, Mehdi

AU - Avci, Aziz

AU - Wüster, Wolfgang

AU - Joger, Ulrich

PY - 2016/8

Y1 - 2016/8

N2 - The Near and Middle East is a hotspot of biodiversity, but the region remains underexplored at the level of genetic biodiversity. Here, we present an extensive molecular phylogeny of the viperid snake genus Montivipera, including all known taxa. Based on nuclear and mitochondrial data, we present novel insights into the phylogeny of the genus and review the status of its constituent species. Maximum likelihood methods revealed a montane origin of Montivipera at 12.3 Mya. We then analyzed factors of mountain viper diversity. Our data support substantial changes in effective population size through Plio–Pleistocene periods. We conclude that climatic oscillations were drivers of allopatric speciation, and that mountain systems of the Near and Middle East have strongly influenced the evolution and survival of taxa, because climatic and topographical heterogeneities induced by mountains have played a crucial role as filters for dispersal and as multiple refugia. The wide diversity of montane microhabitats enabled mountain vipers to retain their ecological niche during climatic pessima. In consequence the varied geological and topographical conditions between refugia favoured genetic isolation and created patterns of species richness resulting in the formation of neoendemic taxa. Our data support high concordance between geographic distributions of Montivipera haplotypes with putative plant refugia.

AB - The Near and Middle East is a hotspot of biodiversity, but the region remains underexplored at the level of genetic biodiversity. Here, we present an extensive molecular phylogeny of the viperid snake genus Montivipera, including all known taxa. Based on nuclear and mitochondrial data, we present novel insights into the phylogeny of the genus and review the status of its constituent species. Maximum likelihood methods revealed a montane origin of Montivipera at 12.3 Mya. We then analyzed factors of mountain viper diversity. Our data support substantial changes in effective population size through Plio–Pleistocene periods. We conclude that climatic oscillations were drivers of allopatric speciation, and that mountain systems of the Near and Middle East have strongly influenced the evolution and survival of taxa, because climatic and topographical heterogeneities induced by mountains have played a crucial role as filters for dispersal and as multiple refugia. The wide diversity of montane microhabitats enabled mountain vipers to retain their ecological niche during climatic pessima. In consequence the varied geological and topographical conditions between refugia favoured genetic isolation and created patterns of species richness resulting in the formation of neoendemic taxa. Our data support high concordance between geographic distributions of Montivipera haplotypes with putative plant refugia.

KW - Montivipera

KW - Near East and Middle East

KW - Phylogeny

KW - Divergence times

KW - Phylogeography

KW - Allopatric speciation

U2 - 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.025

DO - 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.025

M3 - Article

VL - 101

SP - 336

EP - 351

JO - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

JF - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

SN - 1055-7903

ER -