The 2×2 model of Perfectionism and Exercise Dependence

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  • Sarah Deck
    Western University, Ontario
  • Ross Roberts
  • Craig Hall
    University of Western Ontario
We examined the influence of perfectionism on exercise dependence using the 2×2 model of perfectionism. This model posits that interactions between different forms of perfectionism; self-oriented (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) conduce to different outcomes. Three hundred and seventy-six college students completed an online survey measuring exercise behaviour, dependence and perfectionism. When accounting for participant gender, we failed to find significant interactions between subtypes of perfectionism and exercise dependence. In contrast to our hypotheses and the tenets of the model, the highest levels of exercise dependence were mostly associated with high levels of SOP, as well as high levels of both SOP and SPP . This study adds to previous work that has questioned the tenets of the model as they apply to exercise. However, our results still highlight the importance of examining within-person combinations of perfectionism.


  • perfectionism, Exercise dependence, 2x2 model, Gender, Exercise
Original languageEnglish
Article number111001
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Early online date25 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

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