The subjective value of a smile alters social behaviour

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Face-to-face social behaviour is difficult to explain, leading some researchers to call it the “dark matter” of psychology/neuroscience [1]. We apply an idea from neuroeconomics to this problem, suggesting that how people subjectively value facial expressions should predict usage differences during unconstrained interaction. Specifically, we ask whether the subjective value of smiles is malleable as a consequence of immediate social experience and how this relates to smiling during face-to-face interactions. We measured the value of a
smile in monetary terms and found that increases in people’s social neediness caused devaluation of polite smiles but no changes in how they valued genuine smiles. This result predicts that participants induced to feel high levels of social need should be less responsive to their social partners’ polite smiles in a subsequent unconstrained social interaction. As expected, high social-need participants returned fewer polite smiles when interacting with a partner, leading to poor interaction outcomes. Genuine smile reciprocity remained
unchanged. Findings show that social states influence real-world interactions by changing social-cue valuation, highlighting a potential mechanism for understanding the moment-to-moment control of social behaviour and how behaviour changes based on people’s subjective evaluations of the social environment.


  • decision making, behaviour, face, emotions, personality, social reseearch, neuroeconomics, research laboratories
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0225284
Number of pages19
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2019

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