Objectives: To predict the complex anxiety-performance dynamics, Cheng and associates (Cheng, Hardy, and Markland, 2009, 2011: Cheng, Hardy, and Woodman, 2011) proposed a three-dimensional model of anxiety that highlighted the adaptive potential of anxiety, and was supported with regard to cross-cultural factorial validity and predictive validity in the context of sports performance. In particular, this anxiety model included a regulatory dimension (reflected by perceived control) in addition to the conventional intensity-oriented dimensions of cognitive and physiological anxiety.
Design: To further examine the characteristics of the hypothesized adaptive potential of the regulatory dimension of anxiety, a series of three studies were conducted to investigate the relationship mainly between the regulatory dimension and three psychological variables proposed to be related to performance and stress, namely, perfectionism, self-talk and coping strategy.
Method: Chinese sports participants and dancers completed self-report measures. Hierarchical multiple regression was adopted for data analysis.
Results: The findings showed that the regulatory dimension of anxiety was positively predicted by relatively adaptive dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards) and self-talk (motivational and instructional self-talk), and positively predicted approach coping.
Conclusions: Overall, these data support the hypothesized characteristics of the adaptive potential underlying the regulatory dimension of anxiety. Future research and applied implications are suggested. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.