Yeast forms dominate fungal diversity in the deep oceans

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  • David Bass
  • Alexis Howe
  • Nick Brown
  • Hannah Barton
  • Maria Demidova
  • Harlan Michelle
  • Lily Li
  • Holly Sanders
  • Sarah C Watkinson
  • Simon Willcock
    Oxford University
  • Thomas A. Richards
Fungi are the principal degraders of biomass in most terrestrial ecosystems. In contrast to surface environments, deep-sea environmental gene libraries have suggested that fungi are rare and non-diverse in high-pressure marine environments. Here, we report the diversity of fungi from 11 deep-sea samples from around the world representing depths from 1500 to 4000?m (146?388?atm) and two shallower water column samples (250 and 500?m). We sequenced 239 clones from 10 fungal-specific 18S rRNA gene libraries constructed from these samples, from which we detected only 18 fungal 18S-types in deep-sea samples. Our phylogenetic analyses show that a total of only 32 fungal 18S-types have so far been recovered from deep-sea habitats, and our results suggest that fungi, in general, are relatively rare in the deep-sea habitats we sampled. The fungal diversity detected suggests that deep-sea environments host an evolutionarily diverse array of fungi dominated by groups of distantly related yeasts, although four putative filamentous fungal 18S-types were detected. The majority of our new sequences branch close to known fungi found in surface environments. This pattern contradicts the proposal that deep-sea and hydrothermal vent habitats represent ancient ecosystems, and demonstrates a history of frequent dispersal between terrestrial and deep-sea habitats
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)3069-3077
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume274
Issue number1629
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2007
Externally publishedYes
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