BACKGROUND Pharmacogenetics offers the potential to improve health outcomes by identifying individuals who are at greater risk of harm from certain medicines. Routine adoption of pharmacogenetic tests requires evidence of their cost-effectiveness.
METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic tests aimed to reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions. Literature was searched using Embase, Medline and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database with search terms relating to pharmacogenetic testing, adverse drug reactions, economic evaluations and pharmaceuticals. Titles were screened independently by two reviewers. Articles deemed to meet the inclusion criteria were screened independently on abstract, and full texts reviewed.
RESULTS We identified 852 articles, of which 47 met the inclusion criteria. There was evidence supporting the cost-effectiveness of testing for: HLA-B*57:01 (prior to abacavir), HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-A*31:01 (prior to carbamazepine), HLA-B*58:01 (prior to allopurinol), and CYP2C19 (prior to clopidogrel treatment). Economic evidence was inconclusive with respect to TPMT (prior to 6-mercaptoputine, azathioprine and cisplatin therapy), CYP2C9 and VKORC1 (to inform genotype-guided dosing of coumarin derivatives), MTHFR (prior to methotrexate treatment) and factor V Leiden testing (prior to oral contraception). Testing for A1555G is not cost effective before prescribing aminoglycosides.
CONCLUSIONS Our systematic review identified robust evidence of the cost effectiveness of genotyping prior to treatment with a number of common drugs. However, further analyses and (or) availability of robust clinical evidence is necessary to make recommendations for others.