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A 5.8-GHz continuous-wave (CW) radar was devel- oped and integrated on a compact printed circuit board (PCB) for near-hive monitoring of honeybees. It supported noninvasive detection of free-flying honeybees at 2 m and micro-Doppler extraction of bee wingbeat signatures at a closer range using both a double-balanced mixer and an in-phase/quadrature (IQ) mixer. An original technique combining full-wave simulations and Doppler-radar monitoring of pendulum motion was used for: radar calibration through spherical targets of different material and size; precise extraction of bee radar cross section (RCS) at 5.8 GHz; and estimation of detection range enhancement through partial silver coating of targets. Finally, the CW radar was integrated with machine learning (ML) to allow automated classification of incoming, outgoing, and hovering honeybees. Different ML approaches were tested, where the highest accuracy of 93.37% was found in ternary classification via support vector machine acting on line spectral frequencies.


  • Continuous-wave (CW) radar, Doppler radar, machine learning (ML), micro-Doppler.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4098-4108
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number9
Early online date6 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023
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