Electronic versions


  • Leijten etal_in press_DPP_Conduct problems and maternal depression_Tom special issue

    Accepted author manuscript, 476 KB, PDF document

    Embargo ends: 2/02/20


  • Patti Leijten
    University of Amsterdam
  • Frances Gardner
    Oxford University
  • G.J. Melendez-Torres
    Cardiff University
  • Joyce Weeland
    University of Amsterdam
  • Judith Hutchings
  • Sabine Landau
    King's College London
  • Sinead McGilloway
    National University of Ireland
  • Geertjan Overbeek
    University of Amsterdam
  • Jolien van Aar
    University of Amsterdam
  • Ankie Menting
    Utrecht University
  • Bram Orobio de Castro
    Utrecht University
  • Vashti Berry
    University of Exeter
  • Maria Gaspar
    Universidade de Coimbra
  • Ulf Axberg
    Göteborg University
  • Willy-Tore Morch
    University of Tromso
  • Stephen Scott
    King's College London
Children vary in the extent to which they benefit from parenting programs for conduct problems. How does parental mental health change if children benefit less or more? We assessed whether changes in conduct problems and maternal depressive symptoms co-occur following participation in the Incredible Years parenting program. We integrated individual participant data from 10 randomized trials (N = 1280; children aged 2–10 years) and distinguished latent classes based on families' baseline and post-test conduct problems and maternal depressive symptoms, using repeated measures latent class analysis (RMLCA) and latent transition analysis (LTA). Classes differed mainly in severity of conduct problems and depression (RMLCA; 4 classes). Conduct problems reduced in all classes. Depressive symptoms did not change in most classes, except in a class of families where conduct problems and depression were particularly severe. Incredible Years led to a greater likelihood of families with particularly severe conduct problems and depression moving to a class with mild problems (LTA; 3 classes). Our findings suggest that for the majority of families, children's conduct problems reduce, but maternal depressive symptoms do not, suggesting relative independence, with the exception of families with severe depression and severe conduct problems where changes for the better do co-occur.
Original languageEnglish
JournalDevelopment and Psychopathology
Early online date2 Aug 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2 Aug 2019
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