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This article provides a critical perspective on the political and policy history of probation in England and Wales to develop a better understanding of how TR came to be. TR was only the latest act in a longstanding process of changing probation to fit ideological ‘flavours’, and we suggest that it is the hidden nature of probation work in combination with a lack of public legitimation work by probation institutions and probation staff that has placed probation in such a vulnerable position.


  • Probation, Privatisation, Organisational change, CJ Legislation, Organisational culture
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-24
JournalProbation Journal
Issue number1
Early online date28 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

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