Electronic versions



  • Joanne A. Smith
    University of the West Indies
  • Helen Baker-Henningham
    University of the West Indies
  • Alexandra Brentani
    University of Sao Paolo
  • Rose Mugweni
    Great Zimbabwe University
  • Susan P. Walker
    University of the West Indies
Young children need nurturing care, which includes responsive caregiver–child interactions and opportunities to learn. However, there are few extant large‐scale programs that build parents’ abilities to provide this. We have developed an early childhood parenting training package, called Reach Up, with the aim of providing an evidence‐based, adaptable program that is feasible for low‐resource settings. Implementation of Reach Up was evaluated in Brazil and Zimbabwe to inform modifications needed and identify challenges that implementers and delivery agents encountered. Interview guides were developed to collect information on the program's appropriateness, acceptability, and feasibility from mothers, home visitors, and supervisors. Information on adaptation was obtained from country program leads and Reach Up team logs, as well as quality of visits from observations conducted by supervisors. The program was well accepted by mothers and visitors, who perceived benefits for the children; training was viewed as appropriate, and visitors felt well‐prepared to conduct visits. A need for expansion of supervisor training was identified and the program was feasible to implement, although challenges were identified, including staff turnover; implementation was less feasible for staff with other work commitments (in Brazil). However, most aspects of visit quality were high. We conclude that the Reach Up program can expand capacity for parenting programs in low‐ and middle‐income countries.


  • Implementation, low- and middle-income countries, Parenting Programmes, Early childhood
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-140
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2018

Total downloads

No data available
View graph of relations