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Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus x viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico. / Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, TImothy G.; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K.; Calvete, J.J.; Carter, Kimberley C.; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wuster, Catharine; Wüster, Wolfgang.

In: Toxins, Vol. 8, No. 188, 16.06.2016, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

HarvardHarvard

Zancolli, G, Baker, TIG, Barlow, A, Bradley, RK, Calvete, JJ, Carter, KC, de Jager, K, Owens, JB, Price, JF, Sanz, L, Scholes-Higham, A, Shier, L, Wood, L, Wuster, C & Wüster, W 2016, 'Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus x viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico', Toxins, vol. 8, no. 188, pp. 1-16. <http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/8/6/188>

APA

Zancolli, G., Baker, TI. G., Barlow, A., Bradley, R. K., Calvete, J. J., Carter, K. C., de Jager, K., Owens, J. B., Price, J. F., Sanz, L., Scholes-Higham, A., Shier, L., Wood, L., Wuster, C., & Wüster, W. (2016). Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus x viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico. Toxins, 8(188), 1-16. http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/8/6/188

CBE

Zancolli G, Baker TIG, Barlow A, Bradley RK, Calvete JJ, Carter KC, de Jager K, Owens JB, Price JF, Sanz L, Scholes-Higham A, Shier L, Wood L, Wuster C, Wüster W. 2016. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus x viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico. Toxins. 8(188):1-16.

MLA

VancouverVancouver

Zancolli G, Baker TIG, Barlow A, Bradley RK, Calvete JJ, Carter KC et al. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus x viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico. Toxins. 2016 Jun 16;8(188):1-16.

Author

Zancolli, Giulia ; Baker, TImothy G. ; Barlow, Axel ; Bradley, Rebecca K. ; Calvete, J.J. ; Carter, Kimberley C. ; de Jager, Kaylah ; Owens, John Benjamin ; Price, Jenny Forrester ; Sanz, Libia ; Scholes-Higham, Amy ; Shier, Liam ; Wood, Liam ; Wuster, Catharine ; Wüster, Wolfgang. / Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus x viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico. In: Toxins. 2016 ; Vol. 8, No. 188. pp. 1-16.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus x viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

AU - Zancolli, Giulia

AU - Baker, TImothy G.

AU - Barlow, Axel

AU - Bradley, Rebecca K.

AU - Calvete, J.J.

AU - Carter, Kimberley C.

AU - de Jager, Kaylah

AU - Owens, John Benjamin

AU - Price, Jenny Forrester

AU - Sanz, Libia

AU - Scholes-Higham, Amy

AU - Shier, Liam

AU - Wood, Liam

AU - Wuster, Catharine

AU - Wüster, Wolfgang

PY - 2016/6/16

Y1 - 2016/6/16

N2 - Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

AB - Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

KW - adaptation

KW - Crotalus

KW - evolution

KW - hybridization

KW - introgression

KW - Mojave toxin

KW - molecular evolution

KW - venom

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 1

EP - 16

JO - Toxins

JF - Toxins

SN - 2072-6651

IS - 188

ER -