Electronic versions



  • Shuge Zhang
  • Stuart Beattie
  • Amanda Pitkethly
    Edinburgh Napier University
  • Chelsey Dempsey
High-quality training environments are essential for athletic peak performance. However, recent research highlighted that athletes' personality characteristics could undermine effective training. The current set of studies aimed to examine whether specific transformational leadership characteristics displayed by the coach would moderate the potential negative impacts of two personality traits (i.e., extraversion and neuroticism) on training behaviours. In study 1, ninety-nine university athletes completed questionnaires assessing personality, transformational leadership, and training behaviours. In study 2, eighty-four high-level athletes completed the same personality and transformational leadership questionnaires. However, in study 2 the head coaches assessed athletes’ training behaviours. Both studies showed that coach high-performance expectations moderated the extraversion-distractibility relationship. Further, both studies also demonstrated that the relationship between neuroticism and coping with adversity was moderated by coach’s inspirational motivation. Our findings highlight that extraversion and neuroticism can negatively relate to training behaviours, but such effects can be moderated by certain transformational leadership behaviours.


  • extraversion, high-quality training, inspiring motivation, neuroticism, performance expectation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-128
Number of pages33
JournalSport Psychologist
Issue number2
Early online date2018
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

Total downloads

No data available
View graph of relations