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Objectives: Mindfulness-based programs have been delivered to people with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and aggressive behavior with some success. The current study is part of a wider feasibility study, which aimed to test the adaptation of the Soles of the Feet (SoF) meditation practice to a six-session, one-to-one intervention delivered within the UK National Health Service. It was designed for adults with ID to help reduce their aggressive behavior.
Methods: Eighteen stakeholders were interviewed from three groups: 1) People with ID who took part in the intervention, 2) their supporters, and 3) therapists who delivered the intervention. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.
Results: The intervention had high acceptability among participants, although they reported mixed outcomes, these outcomes aligned closely with reports on effectiveness from supporters and therapists. Some people with ID and their supporters reported positive changes, such as reduced aggression, increased sociability, and higher quality of life. Some participants reported no change.
Conclusions: The mixed experiences of the intervention appeared to be related to whether the person with ID understood the intervention and/or were motivated to reduce their aggressive behavior. There was also evidence of supporters needing more direct instruction on how to facilitate the SoF intervention with the person they care for. Suggestions for future research are made, and clinical implications explored.


  • Intellectual Disabilities, Mindfulness-based programs, Qualitative, Aggressive behaviour, Carers, Therapists, Thematic analysis, Soles of the feet
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1828-1841
Issue number9
Early online date28 Mar 2019
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019

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