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  • Anita Malhotra
  • Wolfgang Wüster
  • John Benjamin Owens
  • Cameron Wesley Hodges
    Suranaree University of Technology
  • Allwin Jesudasan
    Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
  • Gnaneswar Ch
    Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
  • Ajay Kartik
    Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
  • Peter Christopher
    Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
  • Jose Louies
    Indian Snakes, Kottayam
  • Hiral Naik
    University of the Witwatersrand
  • Vishal Santra
    Simultala Conservationists (Foundation for Wildlife), Nalikul
  • Sourish Kuttalam
    Simultala Conservationists (Foundation for Wildlife), Nalikul
  • Shaleen Attre
    University of Kent
  • Mahmood Sasa
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado
  • Carlos Bravo-Vega
    Universidad de los Andes, Bogota
  • Kris A. Murray
    Imperial College London
Snakebite incidence at least partly depends on the biology of the snakes involved. However, studies of snake biology have been largely neglected in favour of anthropic factors, with the exception of taxonomy, which has been recognised for some decades to affect the design of antivenoms. Despite this, within-species venom variation and the unpredictability of the correlation with antivenom cross-reactivity has continued to be problematic. Meanwhile, other aspects of snake biology, including behaviour, spatial ecology and activity patterns, distribution, and population demography, which can contribute to snakebite mitigation and prevention, remain underfunded and understudied. Here, we review the literature relevant to these aspects of snakebite and illustrate how demographic, spatial, and behavioural studies can improve our understanding of why snakebites occur and provide evidence for prevention strategies. We identify the large gaps that remain to be filled and urge that, in the future, data and relevant metadata be shared openly via public data repositories so that studies can be properly replicated and data used in future meta-analyses.


  • Snakebite mitigation, Conservation ecology, behaviour, risk mapping, snake rescue networks
Original languageEnglish
Article number10081
Number of pages18
JournalToxicon: X
Issue numberNovember 2021
Early online date26 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021

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