A study was conducted to determine the potential positive effect of novel biosurfactants on the enhancement of Aroclor 1248 metabolization in both in vitro and in situ experiments. Among two lipopeptides tested the highest activity was found in experiments with a hydrolytically opened form of lichenysin A. Lichenysin A itself did not enhance the degradation activity of chosen microorganism-degraders and in most cases inhibited their PCB mineralization rates. Glucolipid surfactant from marine bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis showed in several tests a strong enhancing effect on microbial metabolization of Aroclor 1248 congeners. Biosurfactants appeared to act very specifically, i.e. depending on strain and concentration used. Experiments set up with soil samples did not give a clear answer whether bioemulsifiers applied at low concentration could sufficiently increase the rates of biodegradation in situ. Only A. borkumiensis glucose lipid caused the most marked enhancement of Aroclor 1248 metabolization in soil microcosm. We suggest that taking into account the specificity of surface- and biological activities of various biosurfactants they may promote the mineralization of sorbed PCBs in polluted soils, when the optimized biosurfactant-degrader combination is used.