This study attempts to tease apart a variety of factors that may contribute to performance on executive function tasks. Data from the Simon task are re-examined to determine the contributions of age, SES, language proficiency/vocabulary, general cognitive performance, and bilingualism on performance. The results suggest influence from a variety of factors, with major contributions from relative age and from language proficiency, as measured by vocabulary. Bilingualism showed some effect in relation to older adults' accuracy of performance, in both congruent and incongruent conditions, but not to reaction time.


  • bilingualism, Executive Function, cognitive control, cognitive development, minority langauge, Welsh
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBilingualism, Executive Function, and Beyond: Questions and insights
EditorsIrina Sekerina, Lauren Spradlin, Virginia Valian
Place of PublicationAmsterdam/Philadelphia
PublisherJohn Benjamins
Number of pages42
ISBN (Print)9789027202420
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jun 2019

Publication series

NameStudies in Bilingualism
PublisherJohn Benjamins
ISSN (Print)0928-1533
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