Electronic versions


  • 2018 The community as a language planning crossroads

    Accepted author manuscript, 511 KB, PDF-document

    Embargo ends: 19/01/20


This paper teases out the meeting points between macro and micro language planning in Wales, and how these influence community language use in real terms. The paper draws upon data gathered from an evaluation of the Welsh Government’s strategy towards the maintenance and promotion of the Welsh language on a community level in Wales. Conducting this research provides an insight into how the community acts as a language planning crossroads where a plethora of factors contributes to language use within this sphere.

Key findings report that many opportunities exist to use the Welsh language at macro and micro language planning levels within the communities, including opportunities provided via Welsh Government programmes. However, gaps in community provision exist and linguistic community interaction often occurred within daily, micro activities such as shopping and accessing services rather than within formally organised community activities at a macro level. Furthermore, evidence of existing complex language attitudes, ideologies and norms play a part in the daily negotiation and re-negotiation of language use on a micro level within these communities. This paper will argue that the WG participate in micro language planning in Wales by supplementing local activities via local actors within the communities studied.


  • Community, language norms, micro language planning, minority language, Welsh language
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-225
JournalCurrent issues in language planning
Issue number3
Early online date19 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2019
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