Prof Raimund Karl

Professor in Archaeology

Links

Contact info

If you wish to contact me, you can send me an email. For other contact details, please see the staff list (see link on the left).

For electronic copies of most of my publications, please see my accounts on Academia.edu and/or ResearchGate - you are most welcome to follow these accounts if you would like to see notifications about new uploads of publications and research data.

If you are interested in Archaeological Heritage and its management, you may also wish to have a look at my "Blogschrift" (a mix between a Blog and Online Journal) Archäologische Denkmalpflege. While most contributions there are in German, there are also some in English (with more to come ever so often) that may well be worth reading!

You may also want to befriend me on Facebook, where I also frequently post various things related to archaeology, heritage, and jobs in the sector. And incidentally, if you should be interested in looking for jobs in archaeology, why not check out 'my' online archaeology jobs resource at the Austrian ArchäologieForum? On the other hand, if you are interested in public participation in Austrian archaeology, you may wish to get in touch with ArchaeoPublica - I'm also involved with them in a voluntary capacity.

Contact Info

If you wish to contact me, you can send me an email. For other contact details, please see the staff list (see link on the left).

For electronic copies of most of my publications, please see my accounts on Academia.edu and/or ResearchGate - you are most welcome to follow these accounts if you would like to see notifications about new uploads of publications and research data.

If you are interested in Archaeological Heritage and its management, you may also wish to have a look at my "Blogschrift" (a mix between a Blog and Online Journal) Archäologische Denkmalpflege. While most contributions there are in German, there are also some in English (with more to come ever so often) that may well be worth reading!

You may also want to befriend me on Facebook, where I also frequently post various things related to archaeology, heritage, and jobs in the sector. And incidentally, if you should be interested in looking for jobs in archaeology, why not check out 'my' online archaeology jobs resource at the Austrian ArchäologieForum? On the other hand, if you are interested in public participation in Austrian archaeology, you may wish to get in touch with ArchaeoPublica - I'm also involved with them in a voluntary capacity.

Overview

I did my MPhil, PhD and Habilitation at the University of Vienna, Austria, with theses on a Middle La Tène settlement in Göttlesbrunn, Lower Austria; on Traffic in Iron Age Europe; and finally on Ancient Celtic Social Structures. Following some teaching in Vienna and a stint at the University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies in Aberystwyth, I joined Bangor in 2003 as lecturer in archaeology and heritage. Since 2008, I’m professor for the same subjects here. I also serve as an advisor to several heritage organisations in Wales, Austria and Germany and do some teaching on the side (when I’ve got time) at the University of Vienna, Austria.

I have several main research areas:

  • Late Bronze and Iron Age archaeology of Britain and the near (and not so near) Continent, especially settlement and social archaeology
  • Epistemology in Archaeology (especially in German speaking countries)
  • (archaeological) Heritage management (mainly in Britain, Austria and Germany)
  • Public archaeology
  • Virtual archaeology and archaeological reconstructions

Research

Archaeological heritage management and public archaeology in Austria

Following from the Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe 2007-8 study, dubious practices in Austrian archaeological heritage management, including suspicious collusions between archaeologists in the National Heritage Agency BDA and private archaeological contractors were examined in an extended research project. This first stage of this project, which caused massive changes in Austrian heritage management over the years 2009-11, came to an end with the publication of a monograph (Karl 2011) on Archaeological Heritage Management in Austria – Practice, Problems, Suggested Solutions. Changes induced by the research carried out for this project include the prohibition for public servants in the archaeology department of the  BDA to also head private archaeological contractor businesses (by ministerial edict), the end of the practice of the BDA to award high-value contracts to these very same contractors without tender or offer the services of these contractors to third parties as if they were part of the BDA (internal order of President of the BDA; freeing the private market for archaeological contractors from unfair competition and releasing several million € per annum into that private market), and the creation of the first minimum standards for archaeological excavations in Austria (issued by the department of archaeology of the BDA).

A second stage of this project is currently examining the possibilities for and problems with a (lack of provision for) public archaeology in Austria. Under the interpretation of Austrian heritage legislation applied by the BDA until September 2017, only persons with a degree in an archaeological subject were allowed to search for archaeological finds in Austria, effectively criminalising large parts of the Austrian population which want to contribute to the archaeological process. The current research aims to examine whether these citizens, in particular the metal detectorists, cause significant damage to Austrian archaeology (as is usually claimed by archaeologists), or whether their contribution outweighs the damage they might cause.

As part of the second stage, the legality of the application by the BDA of the provisions of § 11 (1) Austrian Monument Protection Law (DMSG) regarding fieldwork / research permits was also tested in a number of court cases. In September 2017, one such case, brought before the Austrian Federal Court of Administrative Appeals (BVwG), led to a conclusive judgment that the BDA had consistently and seriously misapplied the law for decades (for more detailed documentation including the text of the Court’s finding, see https://www.academia.edu/34666435/BVwG_11.9.2017_W_183_2168814-1_2E).

The court found that the fieldwork permit requirement did not extend to any research with the purpose of finding archaeology, as the BDA had maintained, but instead only extended to fieldwork with the purpose of finding archaeology on sites where significant archaeology is already known to exist; and could not extend at all to any fieldwork aimed at the discovery of surface finds and features. As a consequence of this judgement, the BDA is required to significantly change its policies and practices regarding the issuing of permits for planned fieldwork, and its practices of prosecuting potential offenders for non-permitted fieldwork. It also highlights particularly the shortcomings of the Austrian DMSG where archaeological heritage and its protection are concerned.

In a third step, suggestions are now being made regarding suitable changes to the Austrian DMSG to provide a better and more sustainable protection of archaeological heritage in Austria. A monograph (working title: Rechtswidrige Denkmalpflege) on the subject, explaining the existing problems and shortcomings of law, policy and practice, and providing draft texts for revised provisions of the ‘archaeological’ sections (§§ 8-11) of the DMSG, has recently been drafted and will hopefully be published in 2018. A suggestion for changes to the archaeological provisions of the DMSG has been submitted to the Austrian Minister for Culture in January 2018, the proposal can be found here. The arguments provided will hopefully allow to convince Austrian politics that the law needs to be urgently revised, to improve archaeological heritage protection in Austria considerably.

For more publications related to this, please see my publication list.

The Meillionydd Project

With Dr Kate Waddington (Bangor University) and Katharina Möller MA (Bangor University)

For more information and to download interim reports, please see: http://meillionydd.bangor.ac.uk

This research concerns the investigation of a hilltop enclosure at Meillionydd in Rhiw, Gwynedd. The site forms one of ten ‘double ringwork’ enclosures on the Llŷn peninsula. Despite representing a distinct regional tradition, the development of these enclosures is not well understood. In the first seven seasons (2010-2016), the site was sectioned from outside the south-easterly entrance to outside the north-western outer bank. Since season 8 (2017), we have started to excavate the north-eastern half of the site, to try to connect the complex stratigraphy that exists particularly on the inner side of the inner bank and gain even better understanding of the internal spatial organisation of the site. It is expected that this phase of the Meillionydd excavations will take some further 4-5 years to complete. The GPR survey and excavation results have revealed a long and complex sequence of occupation, beginning with a timber settlement of roundhouses and a palisade enclosure or ditched enclosure, and culminating with a double ringwork of stone and earth banks with internal stone roundhouses. At the moment, we can distinguish 8 main phases, several of them with further sub-phases; in total, 13 different stages can currently be identified in the sequence of occupation of the site. Current radiocarbon dates span c. 750 – 200 cal. BC, with a systematic dating programme planned for the near future. For publications related to this, please see my key & recent publication list.

The Labour Market and the Socio-Economics of Archaeology in Europe

Following on from the previous Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe projects, research (including grant applications for new iterations of the ‘DISCO’ studies) continues on the Archaeological Labour Market and socio-economic conditions for and of archaeological work in Europe.

Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe 2014 was a major transnational project, examining archaeological employment and barriers to transnational mobility within archaeology across twenty European countries. It is undertaken with the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union. 
It is a successor to the previous Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe project which ran from 2006-2008.

For publications related to this and the previous Discovering the Archaeologists of Austria 2007-8 project, please see my key & recent publication list.
For more information, please also see:
http://discovering-archaeologists.eu/

For more information on archaeological jobs, also see our joint work with the University of Vienna on the internet (With PD Dr Karl R. Krierer, Department of Ancient History at the University of Vienna, Austria): http://archaeologieforum.at - a German / International archaeology discussion forum with major jobs resource.

Teaching and Supervision

Undergraduate

  • Introduction to History and Heritage (y1)
  • Guardians of Heritage (y2/3)
  • Heritage and Identity (y2/3)

Postgraduate

  • Theory and Interpretation in Celtic Archaeology
  • Celtic societies in Europe

PhD supervision 

Current students:

  • Gibby, The prehistoric heritage of Wales and Welsh identity
  • Möller, Community archaeology in the UK and Germany in light of the Faro Convention

Previous PhD topics / areas I'm willing to supervise:

  • Iron Age Britain and Europe
  • Gender Archaeology
  • Social Archaeology
  • Heritage
  • Public Archaeology
  • Archaeological Epistemology

Grant Awards and Projects

Previous projects (small grants)

  • Excavations in Göttlesbrunn, p.B. Bruck an der Leitha, Lower Austria – excavations on an Iron Age lowland open settlement 1992-1995. Funded by Lower Austrian Museum.
  • Excavations in Lochen, Upper Austria and Goeming, Salzburg – Excavations of two Iron Age „Viereckschanzen“ in Austria in co-operation with the Upper Austrian Museum and the Salzburger Museum Carolino Augusteum. Also used as field school for students at Bangor & Vienna. Part-funded in 2006/07 by Kulturabteilung des Landes Oberösterreich, Salzburger Museum Carolino Augusteum.
  • Excavations in Moel y Gaer, Llanbedr hillfort near Ruthin - Excavations of an Iron Age hillfort near Ruthin in cooperation with the Heritage Lottery Fund-funded “Heather and Hillforts” project of Denbighshire County Council. Also used as field school for students at University of Vienna, Austria, and BangorUniversity. Part-funded by University of Wales Publications and Collaborative Research Committee and CADW.
  • Survey at Caer Drewyn hillfort near Corwen and Excavations at Moel Fodig hillfort near Corwen – annual surveys (2010-2012) in several hillforts and excavations of an Iron Age hillfort near Corwen in cooperation with “Heather and Hillforts” and Oxford University. Part-funded by CAWCS Publications and Collaborative Research Committee. Additional funding by Denbighshire County Council.
  • Excavations at Meillionydd near Rhiw – Annual (2010-2017) excavations of an Iron Age double ringwork enclosure on the Llyn peninsula in collaboration with Dr Kate Waddington and Katharina Möller MA. Part-funded by CAWCS Publications and Collaborative Research Committee, Cardiff University, the Prehistoric Society, HLF, AONB, Cambrian Archaeological Association and various other small grants. Third sector co-funding through Bangor Summer Schools, archaeology field schools and Austrian heritage tourism company.
  • Arbeitsmarktsituation in der Archäologie – Ongoing statistical assessment of the archaeological job market based on the data gathered via my archaeological job resource http://archaeologieforum.at/jobnew.php. 2007-2008 and 2012-2014 in cooperation with EU-project “Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe”.
  • Modelling, Interpretation and Alternate Representations: Visualization technology, Heritage Buildings & Coastal Threats – Co-Investigator with Jonathan C. Roberts (Principal Investigator, School of Computer Science, Bangor University) in AHRC/EPSRC research network (AH/G015570/1).
  • Early Celtic Societies in North Wales - CAWCS Publications and Collaborative Research Committee grant for 1-year research assistance with Prof. J.T. Koch at CAWCS as co-applicant.
  • Studying Archaeology in Europe – collaborative international project 2011-2012 examining the socio-economic and educational experiences of archaeology students in Europe (see http://www.studyingarchaeology.eu/).

Previous Projects (large grants)

  • Ancient Britain and the Atlantic Zone – Co-director of collaborative research project with Prof John T. Koch (Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies, Aberystwyth) and Prof Sir Barry W. Cunliffe (OxfordUniversity) on mobility and connectivity in the Atlantic Sea Zone between the late Palaeolithic and the high Middle Ages. Additional collaborators Prof Stephen Oppenheimer (OxfordUniversity) and Prof Bryan Sykes (University College Dublin) on ancient DNA. Funded by HEFCW.
  • Digital Media and Public Archaeology KTP – collaborative project with Gwynedd Archaeological Trust (GAT) to improve the Historic Environment Record (HER) and the Welsh archaeological trusts’ Archwilio online HER database by including and making publicly accessible digital media (images, plans, etc.). Funded by the Technology Strategy Board KTP Scheme (KTP008145).
  • Discovering the archaeologists of Europe 2012-14 – EU grant to York Archaeological Trust and partners for repeat run of the DISCO-study. Internationales Österreichisches Archäologie Forum again participated as Austrian partner (528091-LLP-2012-UKLEONARDO-LNW).
  • Alternative views on the lost heritage of Gwynedd – AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Theme research development grant (with Dr Jonathan Roberts, Bangor School of Computer Science as PI) for 3D visualisation of lost heritage sites based on archival photographic images  (AH/K006401/1).
  • Co-production of alternative views of lost heritage – AHRC Digital Transformations in Community Research large research grant (with Dr Jonathan Roberts, Bangor School of Computer Sciences as PI and Dr Ben Edwards at MMU and Dr Bernie Tiddemans at Aberystwyth University as Co-Is) for community-production of 3D visualisation of heritage sites by means of randomly taken photographic images (AH/L007916/1).
  • Atlantic Europe and the Metal Ages (AMEA): questions of shared language – follow-up application built on the Ancient Britain and the Atlantic Zone project, with same core team and structure (Koch lead, Cunliffe and Karl co-applicants), but focussing specifically on the Bronze and Iron Age. Funded by AHRC (AH/K002600/1).

Research outputs (252)

View all

Prof. activities and awards (68)

View all

Accolades (2)

View all

Projects (14)

View all

View graph of relations